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310
submitted 1 week ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

I thought I'll make this thread for all of you out there who have questions but are afraid to ask them. This is your chance!

I'll try my best to answer any questions here, but I hope others in the community will contribute too!

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40
submitted 2 hours ago* (last edited 2 hours ago) by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

Whether you're really passionate about RPC, MQTT, Matrix or wayland, tell us more about the protocols or open standards you have strong opinions on!

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25
submitted 2 hours ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

This is too great not to share. Wayland devs hate this trick! I'll copy what I did from the bug report.

As a workaround you can use https://github.com/Supreeeme/extest to make Onboard work. Compile it as a 64 bit library and launch onboard with

env LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib64/libextest.so onboard

If you want to use it with KDE you can add

X-KDE-Wayland-VirtualKeyboard=true

to its desktop-file.

I used kwin rules to get rid of window decorations and have it always on top without stealing focus. If someone knows how to make all other windows smaller when it's active that would be great.

Only problem remaining is that sometimes the keys get stuck on touch input. At least on my Steam Deck on OpenSUSE.

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8
submitted 3 hours ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]
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13
submitted 4 hours ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]
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cryptsetup hanging? (lemmy.sdf.org)
submitted 4 hours ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

Anyone ever have cryptsetup just start hanging after entering password on boot? This seems like it's going to be a fun issue to try to resolve...

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254
submitted 9 hours ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]
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144
submitted 8 hours ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]
9
-4
submitted 2 hours ago* (last edited 15 minutes ago) by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

Back in October I bought myself a new shiny SSD to finally make the first step of leaving behind Windows.

After enquiring about which Distro to use, I settled on Fedora after being fed up with using Ubuntu in the past and feeling not close to technically skilled enough to use Arch.

The original plan was to have the SSD hold multiple Linux OS as well as a common storage that can be accessed from Windows as well as these distros.

Since I wanted to be able to dual boot multiple OS (Fedora & Tails) I choose Ventoy … Well chose is a strong word. It’s the only software for dual booting that still seems to be maintained.

While reading up on Ventoy I hit my fist snag. Ventoy does not support persistence in Tails. “Okay whatever I can deal with that later as long as I am able to store some file on common folder I’m fine” However dear reader who knows about partitioning, you will know that we are running out of space on the partition table with Ventoy, Tails and Fedora each taking up space. Once again I thought “okay whatever, I can figure that out later” and moved on to Fedora.

Now, running Fedora without persistence through Ventoy is no issue, but as soon you want persistence it gets tricky. See, Fedora cannot just with run persistence off Ventoy. It needs a boot option edited. How this is accomplished? No one even in the Ventoy Forum could tell me. and I felt waaay in over my head when I started reading up on Grub and how to edit the Bootloader files I find somewhere while digging through the ISO with 7zip. So I started reading up what this “selinux” option even is and found out that, I should probably not disable it. to begin with.

“Oookay” I thought slightly desperate, “I guess Ventoy is off the table” Luckily, a few weeks later, I found out about Whonix. Thus, a new play formed in my head: Ditch Ventoy and Tails, part the SSD to make it usable as a normal file storage and keep the other partition with persistent Fedora with Whonix. “Okay, that seems already waaay easier. I installed Ubuntu before from a VM to USB Sticks for school, I can do the same with Fedora. I’m basically already on the finishing straight”

Well no. Turns out, running a VM comes with its own snags. Like how VMware really is only working great if you buy a licence or the fact that Virtualbx automatically set’s the USB Standard of each VM to USB 2.0 meaning you will need to reboot the live OS to make the SSD running under 3.0 visible for installation. There goes another 20 minutes down the drain.

After fiddling around with the partition manager in Fedora and reading up on the documentation surrounding this issue (and finding out that it is more than 15(!) Version behind the current setup (it was a nice read tho)) another slap happened, to my already failing believe that this project would work out. Partitioning the SSD with a home, boot, swap and EFI System Partition, can leave enough space on the Disk but no extra space on the partition table.
“Well, guess I have to mount a LVM Partiton somewhere” I thought and moved on in the hope to at least get Fedora finally running on the SSD. But alas, my BIOS just decided to throw the most generic error ever.

Upon searching the web I found about this bug which apparently has been open since Fedora 37. So on the chance of me having said issue because of this bug, I got Fedora 36 and repeated the steps of creating a VM (don’t forget about that USB2 issue, or you will lose 20 minutes again) and installing it on the SSD. Presumably because I have an unmaintained version of Fedora which is 3 version behind the current one, installing Fedora on the SSD took more than an hour. (opposed to the 30 minutes it took me with 38.)

And after all that hassle? Still nothing. I still get that Bios Error and I still can’t run Fedora, and I have to say I’m sick and tired of it. I’m not a complete idiot (in most ways of life) but I cannot for the love of me figure out how I will ever get this to work. Or how the average user (who, let’s assume for the sake of my argument, is also not a complete idiot) is supposed to make this work. The hoops I jumped through, the hours of time wasted waiting for a status bar to update, the time spent googling and reading up on seemingly obscure issues, no average user wants to do this. It’s utopian to assume “oh users will just switch if Microsoft just does this or that stupid thing”. Whatever will happen, these users will not come in troves to Linux. This experience, which I can only describe as “running blind through a mirror maze” is masochistic. And I can’t do it any more. Maybe six months down the road, when brain damage finally has me forgotten the headache this journey has caused, I will pick this project up again. For now, I just really needed to write this rant, or I fear this day spent troubleshooting was for nothing.

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127
submitted 13 hours ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]
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11
submitted 13 hours ago* (last edited 13 hours ago) by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

can someone else use my machine as a router to forward traffic to anywhere else on the internet?

I'm not entirely sure what the security implications of that would even be if true but probably nothing good

I don't have any other routes in my routing table other than my "default" route and this machine is reachable via a globally routable IPv4 address. Also I think there are probably other machines on the same subnet (cloud VPS)

12
37
submitted 17 hours ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

I've been seeing a lot of talk about CachyOS recently. Has anyone here tried it? It seems interesting and I might give it a go (currently on EndeavourOS) on a spare drive in my PC.

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177
submitted 23 hours ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]
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85
submitted 22 hours ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

I often hear folks in the Linux community discussing their preference for Arch (and Linux in general) because they can install only the packages they want or need - no bloat.

I've come across users with a couple of hundred packages installed (likely fresh installs), but I've also seen others with thousands.

Personally, I'm currently at 1.7k packages on my desktop and 1.3k on my laptop (both running EndeavourOS). There might be a few packages I could remove, but I don't feel like my system is bloated.

I guess it's subjective, but when do you consider a system to be bloated?

I'm asking as a relatively new Linux user - been daily driving for about 7/8 months

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75
submitted 23 hours ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]
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185
submitted 1 day ago* (last edited 10 hours ago) by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

I host a few small low-traffic websites for local interests. I do this for free - and some of them are for a friend who died last year but didn't want all his work to vanish. They don't get so many views, so I was surprised when I happened to glance at munin and saw my bandwidth usage had gone up a lot.

I spent a couple of hours working to solve this and did everything wrong. But it was a useful learning experience and I thought it might be worth sharing in case anyone else encounters similar.

My setup is:

Cloudflare DNS -> Cloudflare Tunnel (Because my residential isp uses CGNAT) -> Haproxy (I like Haproxy and amongst other things, alerts me when a site is down) -> Separate Docker containers for each website. On a Debian server living in my garage.

From Haproxy's stats page, I was able to see which website was gathering attention. It's one running PhpBB for a little forum. Tailing apache's logs in that container quickly identified the pattern and made it easy to see what was happening.

It was seeing a lot of 404 errors for URLs all coming from the same user-agent "claudebot". I know what you're thinking - it's an exploit scanning bot, but a closer look showed it was trying to fetch normal forum posts, some which had been deleted months previously, and also robots.txt. That site doesn't have a robots.txt so that was failing. What was weird is that the it was requesting at a rate of up to 20 urls a second, from multiple AWS IPs - and every other request was for robots.txt. You'd think it would take the hint after a million times of asking.

Googling that UA turns up that other PhpBB users have encountered this quite recently - it seems to be fascinated by web forums and absolutely hammers them with the same behaviour I found.

So - clearly a broken and stupid bot, right? Rather than being specifically malicious. I think so, but I host these sites on a rural consumer line and it was affecting both system load and bandwidth.

What I did wrong:

  1. In docker, I tried quite a few things to block the user agent, the country (US based AWS, and this is a UK regional site), various IPs. It took me far too long to realise why my changes to .htaccess were failing - the phpbb docker image I use mounts the root directory to the website internally, ignoring my mounted vol. (My own fault, it was too long since I set it up to remember only certain sub-dirs were mounted in)

  2. Figuring that out, I shelled into the container and edited that .htaccess, but wouldn't have survived restarting/rebuilding the container so wasn't a real solution.

Whilst I was in there, I created a robots.txt file. Not surprisingly, claudebot doesn't actually honour whats in there, and still continues to request it ten times a second.

  1. Thinking there must be another way, I switched to Haproxy. This was much easier - the documentation is very good. And it actually worked - blocking by Useragent (and yep, I'm lucky this wasn't changing) worked perfectly.

I then had to leave for a while and the graphs show it's working. (Yellow above the line is requests coming into haproxy, below the line are responses).

Great - except I'm still seeing half of the traffic, and that's affecting my latency. (Some of you might doubt this, and I can tell you that you're spoiled by an excess of bandwidth...)

  1. That's when the penny dropped and the obvious occured. I use cloudflare, so use their firewall, right? No excuses - I should have gone there first. In fact, I did, but I got distracted by the many options and focused on their bot fighting tools, which didn't work for me. (This bot is somehow getting through the captcha challenge even when bot fight mode is enabled)

But, their firewall has an option for user agent. The actual fix was simply to add this in WAF for that domain.

And voila - no more traffic through the tunnel for this very rude and stupid bot.

After 24 hours, Cloudflare has blocked almost a quarter of a million requests by claudebot to my little phpbb forum which barely gets a single post every three months.

Moral for myself: Stand back and think for a minute before rushing in and trying to fix something in the wrong way. I've also taken this as an opportunity to improve haproxy's rate limiting internally. Like most website hosts, most of my traffic is outbound, and slowing things down when it gets busy really does help.

This obviously isn't a perfect solution - all claudebot has to do is change its UA, and by coming from AWS it's pretty hard to block otherwise. One hopes it isn't truly malicious. It would be quite a lot more work to integrate Fail2ban for more bots, but it might yet come to that.

Also, if you write any kind of web bot, please consider that not everyone who hosts a website has a lot of bandwidth, and at least have enough pride to write software good enough to not keep doing the same thing every second. And, y'know, keep an eye on what your stuff is doing out on the internet - not least for your own benefit. Hopefully AWS really shaft claudebot's owners with some big bandwidth charges...

EDIT: It came back the next day with a new UA, and an email address linking it to anthropic.com - the Claude3 AI bot, so it looks like a particularly badly written scraper for AI learning.

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141
submitted 1 day ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]
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219
submitted 1 day ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]
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22
submitted 1 day ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]
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46
submitted 1 day ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]
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87
submitted 1 day ago* (last edited 1 day ago) by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

So I normally clear up storage every once in a while, let's say about every four months. I noticed this a while ago, and didn't think much of it. But I was wondering if anyone knew of what this meant, or if this is actually "Malware".

I know whenever I delete a program, using dnf remove program-name, and remove the following folder in local/apps or.config, and this will delete it to save some space. As I'm not using said program for now.

I have never seen this before, and was wondering if anyone would care to help me describe this for me.

My best guess is part of Wireshark, as I remember installing it once, but who knows, maybe It's something I shouldn't have. I know what I'm sort of doing on Linux, and if this is network related, I probably don't care.

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464
submitted 1 day ago* (last edited 1 day ago) by [email protected] to c/[email protected]
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submitted 1 day ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

i recently found out that my wheelchair can be a bluetooth controller but it only has l stick, a, and x. how can i combine it with my xbox adaptive controller?

24
69
submitted 1 day ago* (last edited 1 day ago) by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

I haven't made the switch yet, and I want to know if Linux can run my favorite games.

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Bluetooth connection issues (iusearchlinux.fyi)
submitted 1 day ago by [email protected] to c/[email protected]

I'm using bluez and blueman all updated and i get this error when connecting to multiple devices(DS4 controller, phone, earbuds). It says Connection failed: No audio endpoints registered. I have tried extensively to solve this but I can't seem to find the issue. I'm using arch linux. I've also used bluetoothctl to try and connect but didnt get an explicit error, it just didnt work.

Bluez version: 5.75-1 Kernel: 6.8.5-arch1-1 Pulse version(this might or might not matter): 17.0

Ask for anything, and thanks in advance for the help!

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Linux

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Linux is a family of open source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution (or distro for short).

Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy.

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